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Some and any

Traducción: "Algo de" en las oraciones Afirmativas y negativas. "Nada de" en la oración negativa. Uso: Some se usa en la oración afirmativa. Any se usa en las preguntas y negaciones.

1. some (algo de, algunos, algunas) is used in affirmative statements. 

1.1. Fortunately, Danny said she had some time to help me.

1.2. I have a gallon somewhere at home if you need some more paint.

2. any is used in negatives (nada) and questions (algo).

2.1. Anne didn’t have any money at that moment.


2.2. Did you understand anything of what the teacher said?



Traducción: El, la, los, las. Usos: Específicos.

1. We use the for names of seas, oceans, abbreviations, rivers, group of mountains and islands.

The Mediterranean sea.
The Mississippi river.

2. We use the for names of important buildings.

The White House.
The City Council.

3. Musical Instruments.

The piano, the drums, the violin.

4. To identify something.

Sophia lives in a blue house. (any blue house)
Sophia lives in the blue house. (that house)

5. Never use the with:

single islands, magazines, single mountains, abstract nouns and single lakes.


Adverb order

Traducción: Variada. Uso: Dan cualidades a la acción.

1. Los adverbios siempre van al final de la oración y se ordenan de la siguiente manera:


Manner (How?) + Place (Where?) + Time (When?)


1.1. Steve played the guitar well at the concert yesterday.

1.2. Mrs. Brown spoke wisely at the conference last weekend. 

2. Not always all the adverbs are present. Nonetheless, the adverb order has to be respected.

2.1. John was studying in the library last night.

2.2. The students worked silently last class. 


Questions tags

Traducción: "No es así", "No es cierto", otros. Uso: Se usa para confirmar la veracidad de una información o hecho.

Question Tags.

A very common device in conversations is that of making a statement and at once asking the listener to confirm it. In English this has to be practiced, as we have a variable form.

1. Positive statement / negative tag. (The same auxiliary repeats itself in the tag.)

1.1. He is here, isn't he? / 

1.2. You will come, won't you? / 

1.3. He came yesterday, didn't he? / 

2. Negative statement / positive tag. (The same auxiliary repeats itself in the tag.)

2.1. He isn't here, is he?

2.2. You won't tell him, will you?

2.3. He didn't go, did he?



Traducción: Variada. Uso: Pertenencia.

Los siguientes posesivos requieren un objeto.

my → This is my car. (Possessive + object).
your → Where is your laptop?
his →  He can’t find his keys.
her → Her purse is in the car.
its → This city is beautiful. Its main attractions are the beaches.
our → Our reservation is ready.
your → Your taxi is waiting outside.
their → Their tools are in the warehouse. 


Estos posesivos no requieren de un objeto.

mine → This car is mine. (possessive without object).
yours → This is my laptop. Where is yours?
his →  These keys are his.
hers → This purse is hers.
its → Is this my cell phone battery? No, it isn’t. This is its.
ours → Your dinner is ready. Ours isn’t yet.
theirs → Theirs are in the warehouse. 


Too and enough

Traducción: "Muy" y "suficiente". Se usa para dar énfasis.

1. too (muy) has a negative sense.

This soup is very hot / I can’t drink it. → This soup is too hot (for me) to drink.

2. enough (suficiente) has a positive one.

He is very tall / he might be a volleyball player → He is tall enough to be a volleyball player. 


Either, neither, both

Traducción: Esto o lo otro, ni esto no lo otro, ambos. Uso: Identificar personas, situaciones o elementos.

1. Both (ambos,as por igual) addresses two things/people you like equally.

1.1. I like both hamburger and hot-dog. 

2. Either or (lo uno o lo otro).

2.1. You can have either the orange or the apple.

3. Neither nor (ni lo uno ni lo otro). 

3.1. Neither this house nor the other has central heating. 


Present perfect simple and continuous

Traducción: Yo he, tu has, él ha, etc. Uso: Acciones que comenzaron en el pasado, siguen en el presente y se proyectan a un futuro cercano o lejano.

1. Use the auxiliaries have / has and a verb in the past participle form (speak-spoke-spoken).

1.1. Caroline has studied Psychology for three years.

1.2. John and Conny haven’t arrived yet.

Has Danny called up?

2. The Present Perfect expresses of an action which started in the past, continues at present and it goes into the future.

2.1. I have worked for this company since 2015. (The person started working in 2015, he/she still works there and will continues working at the same place for an undetermined time).

2.2. Isabella hasn’t seen Michael since lunch time.

2.3. Ethan hasn’t found his keys yet.

3. Use for with periods of time.

3.1. We haven’t received any news for two weeks.


4. Use since with a specific time.


4.1. I haven’t visited Alabama since 2010.

5. Use the Present Perfect Continuous to describe an action performed steadily from a near past until the present and a near future.


5.1. Anne has been working on the project all day.

5.2. The players have been training all the morning.


Past perfect

Traducción: Yo había, tú habías, él había, etc. Uso: Acciones que comenzaron en el pasado, siguen en el presente y se proyectan a un futuro cercano o lejano.

1. Use el pasado perfecto (había sido, había hecho, no había estado, etc) de la misma forma que lo usa en español.

2. Use the auxiliary had and its negative form hadn't / had not with all the persons and sentences. Also use a verb in the participle for.


2.1. Affirmative sentence.

2.1.1. Isabella had called you up three times before you arrived.

2.1.2. Caroline and Connie had already bought some bread.

2.2. Negative sentence. 

2.2.1. I hadn't been to Michigan before.

2.2.2. My friends hadn’t seen your paintings before.

2.3. Interrogative sentence.

2.3.1. Had you watched this movie before? 

2.3.2. Where had you been?


The future tense

Traducción: (verbo "ir" como ejemplo) Yo iré, yo voy a ir, yo estaré llegando. Uso: Decisiones del momento para futuro, planes para el futuro o cosas seguras para el futuro.


1. Use will and its negative form will not/won't to express opinion, decision or promise for the future made at the time of speaking.

1.1. Opinion.

Joshua seemed interested on this project. I think he will give his best effort.
1.2. Decision at the time of speaking.

I can’t find any parking on the street and it’s getting late. I will leave the car in a parking lot.

1.3. Promise.

Don’t worry Matthew. I will send the documents you need at 4 pm.

2. Use going to for intentions, plans or predictions for the future (evidence is needed). Use the auxiliaries is, am, are for the affirmative, negative and interrogative forms.

2.1. Intentions.

I am going to finish my book next summer vacations. I will have a lot of time then.

2.2. Plans.

Ashley is going to sell her car to buy a new one.

2.3. Predictions.

Markets are going to fall if the crisis continues.

3. Use present continuous for certainty.

My family is arriving in Alabama tomorrow.

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